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This usually leads to the conclusion that at the time of a person's birth, their parents were married or that the person is the child of a man and woman who were married to each other when the child was conceived.
An example is a contemporary responsum by the well-known Israeli posek, Ovadia Yosef to Rabbi Grubner of Detroit, Michigan, establishing an impossibility to prove mamzer status in a situation where the evidence might appear to be clear-cut.
Rabbis in the Talmud, and those in the Middle Ages, saw fit to spell out that, aside from in questions of marriage, a mamzer should be treated as an ordinary Jew.
The Talmud insists that a mamzer should be considered as an ordinary relative for the purpose of inheritance, The principal approach in Orthodox Judaism is to require strict evidentiary standards for mamzer status, sufficiently strict that proof of the existence of mamzer status is hard to develop and generally does not arise.
Rabbis always allow the suspect child the benefit of the doubt in this matter.The mother's evidence was immediately disqualified as an interested party.The ketubah (Jewish marriage contract/certificate) was never found.Notably, the child of a female mamzer and a non-Jewish man is an ordinary Jew, because both parents must be Jews in order for mamzer status to accrue to the child, but the child does inherit Jewish status from the mother.The biblical rule against certain people becoming part of the "congregation of the Lord" was interpreted in the Talmudic as a prohibition against ordinary Jews marrying such people.
Mamzer status is not synonymous with illegitimacy, since it does not include children whose mothers were unmarried.